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Publications and Resources

Publications and Resources


The American Association for Public Opinion Research. 2016. Standard Definitions: Final Dispositions of Case Codes and Outcome Rates for Surveys. 9th edition.

Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget. 2016. Questions and Answers When Designing Surveys for Information Collections.


Jill M. Montaquila and Kristen M. Olson. 2012. Webinar: Practical Tools for Nonresponse Bias Studies. Sponsored by Survey Research Methods Section, American Statistical Association, and the American Association for Public Opinion Research. 

Elise Christopher, Morgan Earp, Tala Fakhouri, Steven Frenk, Kathryn Downey Piscopo, and Peter Miller. 2018. Lessons from Nonresponse Bias Studies Involving Federal Surveys. Proceedings of the Federal Committee on Statistical Methodology 2018 Research and Policy Conference.

Journal Articles

Robert M. Groves. 2006. Nonresponse Rates and Nonresponse Bias in Household Surveys. Public Opinion Quarterly, Volume 70, Issue 5, Pages 646–675.

James Wagner. 2012. A Comparison of Alternative Indicators for the Risk of Nonresponse Bias. Public Opinion Quarterly, Volume 76, Issue 3, Pages 555-575.

Andy Peytchev, Daniel Pratt, and Michael Duprey. 2020. Responsive and Adaptive Survey Design: Use of Bias Propensity During Data Collection to Reduce Nonresponse Bias. Journal of Survey Statistics and Methodology.